The Best WritersAge of RevolutionsNapoleon and the Congress SystemNapoleon’s Rise to PowerThe Directory under the new Constitution gave a lot of power to the military.Assisted the antimonarchist coup d’etat in 1797 and saved the Republic.Military VictoriesEarly on Napoleon was very successful.1797 Treaty of Campo Formio controlled Switzerland and Italy.1799 Invaded EgyptState of FranceThe Directory encounters problemsEconomic CrisisThe International WarConstitution of Year VIII Abbe Sieyes employed Napoleon to stage a second coup d’etat.“confidence from below, power from above.”The Consulate1799 Napoleon became First Consul1799-1804 Napoleon secured power as the ruling figure in France.Napoleon began his consulate by establishing peace among his enemies.He weeded out any opposition and took absolute rule.Protector of the Republic?Quickly Napoleon established a balance of power by applying democratic principles, such as:Destroyed Feudal PrivilegesSecurity of Property for the Middle ClassUniversal Male SuffrageTreaties1801- Treaty of Luneville took Austria out of the war.1802- Treaty of Amiens brought peace to Europe, including Britain.1802 Concordat in Rome brought peace with the pope and the church.Napoleonic Code1802 Napoleon became “Consul for Life” and then led France into a codification of laws.1804 Napoleonic Code helped establish a Dynasty.Emperor Napoleon I December 2, 1804.The EmpireBetween 1804 -1807, Napoleon wraps the European Continent in war.Very successful on land, but no match for Britain on the sea.October 21, 1805 Battle of Trafalgar … Horatio NelsenNaval BlunderNapoleon lost the Battle of Trafalgar to the British.He lost all hopes of invading BritainLaunched an Economic War on Britain and continued his march across Europe.Conquering EuropeOn land, Napoleon’s army was brilliant.Battle of Austerlitz 1805 made Napoleon master of all German lands.Treaty of Pressburg made Napoleon the king of Italy.Battle of AusterlitzPolitical ChangesIn July 1806, Napoleon organized the Confederation of the Rhine and dissolved the HRE.Battle of Jena 1806, he defeats the PrussiansBy 1807, Napoleon was master of all German Lands.Treaty of Tilsit July 7, 1807 made Prussia and Russia allies of Napoleon.A Dictator of SortsNapoleon transformed Europe into a Continental System.Instituted Reforms wherever he ruled.-Napoleonic Code-Freed serfs and peasants-social distinctionsGerman NationalismMost of German lands were subject to the rule of Napoleon.Only Prussia governed itself.Many German Romantics developed a nationalistic spirit that called to resist French Rule.Prussian ReformPrussia feared another defeat like the one at Jena, in 1806.Instituted internal reforms.Political ReformMilitary ReformBaron von Stein (1757-1831)Count von Hardenberg (1750-1822)Europe at WarThe Wars of LiberationSpain more than any other country resisted French Rule.Austria tried to establish a war of revenge, but lost at every chance.In 1809, Napoleon married the Austrian princess Marie Louise.Pyrrhic DanceSeveral factors led to the war between France and Russia1. Breaking the Treaty of Tilsit2. Failed marriage negotiations3. The Continental SystemBy 1810, Tsar Alexander declared war on the French Empire.A Dead End WarNapoleon’s Grand Army greatly outnumbered the Russians.The invasion, however, did not favor Napoleon.Russians employed a “scratch and burn” tactic.Russian PreparationBattle of BorodinoMoscow, 1812European CoalitionMetternich rounded up a coalition to rid Napoleon of European dominance.Russia, Prussia, Austria, & BritainBattle of Nations, in 1814 forced Napoleon to abdicate and flee to Elba.The Congress of ViennaRobert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh & Prince Metternich headed the congress.Treaty of Chaumont March 9, 1814Restoration of BourbonsQuadruple AllianceCongressional Policy“It is our duty, as well as interest, to regard, if we cannot avert, the return of a more contentious order of things….”~R. S. CastlereaghBourbon RestorationLouis XVIII agreed to a constitutional monarchy and guaranteed the following:an elected legislaturereligious freedomThe Napoleonic Codeequality before the lawThe Hundred DaysOn March 1, 1815, Napoleon returned to France and seized power.The Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw and went after him.June 18, 1815 Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo and sent into exile on St. Helena.Battle of WaterlooNapoleon’s LegacyNapoleon’s reign following the revolutionary government showed the power of the nationhood, which inspired Europe.Birth of the Age of IdeologiesRomanticism, Nationalism, LiberalismBourbon RestorationLouis XVIII political realistConstitutional Monarchy establishedThe “Charter”Ultraroyalism White TerrorNationalismThe belief that a nation is composed of people who are joined by common bonds.Opposed the Congress of ViennaThe notion of “popular sovereignty”The Nation and Nationhood.Nations on the RiseDeveloped a “national” language that did away with dialects.The Printed WordNationhood as way to bridge together people of an ethnic group.Nationalists put pressure on EmpiresLiberalismLiberalism grew out of the nineteenth century political turmoil.Seeped in Enlightenment ideals.Wanted Constitutions and political freedom.Responsible GovernmentPolitical & Economic GoalsWanted boarder political participation, but not democracy.Privilege based on wealth and property.The rising middle-classLaissez-faire EconomicsConservatismThe domestic political order among European countries tended to be conservative in form & principle.Pillars of conservatism were legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches.Epitome of ConservatismConservative TenetsOpposed the rule of popular sovereignty and economic liberty.Limited constitutions power control by monarchies & aristocracies.The alliance systemUniversitiesSeveral student groups rise up supporting the cause of nationalism.Burchenschaften GermanyKarl Sand 1819-20 became a martyr for the student nationalist groups.Sand murders KotzebueSand’s ExecutionCarlsbad DecreesGovernment officials appointed to each UniversityNo teacher/professor allowed to serve as a government officialBanned secret societies and organizationsRule of expulsionProblems in EnglandLord Liverpool’s Ministry & Popular UnrestPoor Law and UnionsThe Peterloo massacre 1819The Six Acts & Parliamentary ReformSt. Peter’s Field 1819Six ActsForbade large public meetingsRaised fines for seditious libelSpeedy trial for political agitatorsIncreased newspaper taxProhibited the training of armed groupsAllowed local officials to search homes on suspicion.The Congress System1815-1822 European international relations were controlled by congresses.1815: Vienna “Concert of Europe”1818: Aix-la-Chapelle1820: Troppau1821: Laibach1822: VeronaCongress of ViennaMetternich wanted to assure that peace in Europe was maintained.Authority of the monarchies and aristocracies.Mutual consultation of politics.ProblemsThe aftermath of the Congress of Vienna sparked a number of opposition uprisings.Crisis, Revolt, and RevolutionsReform Movements on both sides liberal and conservativeCongress of Aix-la-ChapelleArranged for the withdrawal of the allied army of occupation from FranceAdmitted France into the concert of Europe.Congress of TroppauSummoned by Metternich because of the outbreak of revolution in Spain.Protocol of Troppau authorized armed intervention into any state that engaged in a revolution.England opposed.Next WeekMid-Term ExamReview the study guide and study the terms. ‘1 hour for the exam followed by a short lecture.