static warm up protocol on jumping performance – Hire Academic Expert


The effect of a dynamic warm-up protocol against using a static warm up protocol on jumping performance



There are countless studies all trying to find the most efficient and effective way an athlete can prepare them self to produce maximal potential results in a jumping capacity, it is accepted pre-exercise physical preparation is needed for optimal power (Bishop, 2003; Woods et al., 2007). with one area of this routine receiving a mixture of push back for its inclusion which is static muscle stretching (Small et al., 2008; Woods et al., 2007), as multiple reviews of implementing static warm up protocols can negatively and significantly effect power performance (Behm et al., 2016; Behm & Chaouachi, 2011; KAY & BLAZEVICH, 2012).

The push back for the inclusion of static stretching pre-exercise comes from various researchers including the American college of sports medicine (Garber et al., 2011), or instead advocate dynamic forms of muscle stretching (Donaldson et al., 2015). However even with the multiple studies on preparation effect on sport performance there are factors that can affect the external validity which include a varying level of participants knowledge and familiarization of the test (find study), the duration of the stretching routine some longer than what a typical athlete will perform and using various stretches on the same muscle group can impact power output (EBBEN et al., 2005b; SIMENZ et al., 2005), looking into some of the internal validity issues is the expectancy of performers pre knowledge in how confident they are (Janes et al., 2016) and the lack of being able to perform the tests in a blinding aspect where a placebo group could be compared.

Even with the various factors that can reduce the validity of looking at the effect of static vs dynamic stretching on a dynamic movement performance which includes testing jumping have shown stretches that are over 60 seconds per muscle has found an average of -1.1% effect on performance, with the dynamic performance showing +1.3% on power output (Behm et al., 2016). Nevertheless, a call to remove all static stretching for an athlete’s preparation (Judge et al., 2013) just in terms of their sports performance is limited in evidence, and as top-level sport physiotherapists and top-level coaches showing a willingness to still implement static warm up protocols even with the advocacy (Popp et al., 2017).

For this study, we have investigated does the inclusion of moderate static or dynamic muscle stretching influence performance with an emphasis on high intensity sporting movements, looking at the most optimal type of preparation on power output. This study hypothesises that the difference pre and post a dynamic stretching protocol will show a low meaningful impact on jumping distance compared to the static group.










  1. Participants

Fourteen healthy females (age = 19.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass = 64 ± 8.0 kg; height = 1.65 ± 0.05 m) and twenty-one males (age = 20.1 ± 3.6 years; body mass = 75.6 ± 11.3 kg; height = 1.79 ± 0.07 m) volunteered for this study and were allocated randomly to take part in the dynamic stretch.

Another twenty-two females (age = 21.3 ± 5.5 years: body mass = 63.2 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.67 ± 0.07 m) and fifteen males (age = 23.7 ± 7.7 years; body mass = 77.1 ± 11.8 kg; height = 1.83 ± 0.07) were split into the controlled static stretching group.

The participants all undertaking this experiment were recruited as undergraduates all studying a sport coaching degree so all have experienced sport regularly and would have completed stretches pre this experiment, they also signed a consent form before ant tests were performed


  1. Research design

The study used an independent group design, the independent variable was undertaking static longer (<30 s) or dynamic stretching which was shorter (>5 s) after conducting a pre broad jump these were two experimental conditions, these we’re nominal as both stretches are categories, the dependent variable being the distance of the broad jump.

  1. Procedure

Both groups started with a 3-minute jog at a self-selected intensity, they were told to get to a pace where they could still be able to talk while jogging, this would give a good baseline that the jog was at a moderate intensity (Foster et al., 2008) , the participants were allocated one of two experimental (stretching) conditions and performed pre broad jump distances and were asked to record this value into a data sheet the jump was a standing jump where a measuring tape was used to measure from the start line in a straight line where participants were told they would jump with their toes in line with this tape it was the 0cm mark the measuring tape measured to the first part of the persons foot on the surface then the two control groups split to either side of the dome and conducted a 8 minute static or dynamic stretching routine(Dalrymple et al., 2010), broad jumps were immediately following the warm-up, subjects were recorded 1 time for the standing broad jump in the same procedure as the pre jump distance(KOCH et al., 2003), participants were then given a score from the measurer and recorded there score into the data sheet.



  1. Statistical Analysis

With the skewness and kurtosis all lying in between 2 and -2 we see all data was normally disrupted (Vickers, 2005), and we see from the data being repeated measures the data will be found from using a paired sample t-test to compare the pre and post for dynamic and static stretches, we see for the independent group looking at the difference in the two stretches on the distance of the broad jump from pre and post we would use an independent samples t-test. Giving a total of four tests to run through Jasp 0.16.2 two being a paired sample t-test and two through the independent sample t-test.





The two controlled groups showed there were a significant difference with their post jumping distance  t72= 3.09, d =0.719, p = 0.003 (p >0.005) but we see this also in the pre jumping distance t72= 3.548, d=0.826,p<0.01, showing the difference in values were shown not only in the post but also the pre distance showing participants on the dynamic had a greater distance but as of the subjects natural athletic ability not the pre-testing routine we need to see the improvement from both the controlled groups pre and post scores we see a mean improvement in the static stretching group of 0.021±0.03m to the dynamic being 0.016±0.025m.

The repeated measures ANCOVA found no significant effect on broad jump performance following any warm-up routine(p <0.05).We see from the results from the two groups pre-test jumps the significance level being <0.001 the tests are valid, and the results being repeated measures using the variances we see again a p value of <0.05, giving us a good baseline to conduct are results.



In relation to broad jump distance, our hypothesis was not backed up with the findings that dynamic stretching (we saw a 0.016±0.025m) slightly improves the performance compared to a static stretching (0.021±0.03m) condition, this is backed up from findings with Chaouchi et al. (2010) which also showed no significant difference between dynamic and static stretching on explosive movements. On the contrary of Van Gelder and Bartz (2011) which found the dynamic stretching produced more maximal capability for a performer then one that undertook static stretching finding having tightness in the muscle is important for faster contractions. Chaouachi et al. (2010) did attribute the lack of significant difference with the time of the recovery interval between stretching and testing, with over 5 minutes of a recovery period between the static stretching and the performance, with are study we did want the performers to undertake the jump as soon as they finish the warm up but in a real life scenario like for football this isn’t the case where there is time between the performance and the warm up additionally as of only having one measuring jump station subjects were wating for their turn which can skew the results with when the performance was taken after the warm up for each subject we did not take into consideration the fatigue this could be an offsetting factor in the immediate jump (SIMENZ et al., 2005).

Observing the t value for both the post scores with it being 3.09 the difference being small so both stretches gave similar small benefits for the performer in there jump. Some research has shown that having a post activation potentiation before power movements can contribute to a better performance which can happen when undertaking a static dynamic protocol (McMillian et al. 2006), this can be seen in are findings with static having on average a 0.005m improvement which is very minor but can be a factor on bridging the gap between the two values.

The lack of an effect can be seen in research from Knudson et al. (2001) finding little change observed in kinematic variables during a counter movement vertical jump, also from Nelson et al. (2001) found stretching had inhibitory effects, the findings are consistent with the concept having improved muscle compliance can alter the force length properties of muscle such that force production can be compromised during slow movements, so higher speed movements like a broad jumps can be compromised.

Looking at subjects being in a sport degree they could have knowledge of sport science research and bias for a belief this can after perception of preparedness for the jump and effect performance in what they believe the warmup is doing for them this takes into a psychological effect.

The results of static muscle stretching didn’t compromise performance a theory that was discussed in the introduction and dynamic stretching did not significantly enhance performance compared to static, this appears to contradict the findings of previous research however several studies have also shown that for just one rep explosive movements showed the same lack of difference between the performance to the warm up completed, Taylor at al. (2009) found no difference in vertical jump after both warm ups, but even with steps like stretching duration being most common in athletic populations (EBBEN et al., 2005) ensuring the static and dynamic were as identical as possible there were many internal and external factors that effected the validity of the results.

The results do show a small improvement for both stretches even if it’s just psychological coaches should still implement a type of warm up into a performers routine, but for maximal power the differential of static and dynamic show little difference on performance overall.











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