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The Best WritersBy SN Ijeoma Amaoji T2 2020PICOT/Research questionIn adult patients 65 years and older diagnosed with diabetes mellitus admitted to Inova FairfaxHospital medical units, how effective are the use of dietary supplements such as cinnamoncompared to medications such as insulin therapy/oral hypoglycemic in the prevention of diabeticcomplications within one year period?PICOT TABLEP Adult patients 65 years and older with diabetes admitted to Inova FairfaxHospital medical units.Age is one of the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes with a highprevalence in older age groups. Selvin and Parrinello (2013), pointed out thatin the USA adults aged 65 or older, had 20% or more than eight times higherprevalence of being diagnosed diabetes in 2011 than the prevalence amongadults 18 to 44 years of age (2.4% prevalence).I Dietary supplements like cinnamon.It is believed that Dietary supplements like cinnamon help patients to controlblood glucose. As mentioned by Hasanzade et al., (2013), traditional herbsand spices such as Ròu Guì and Cinnamomum cassia are commonly used forcontrol of glucose among has the greatest effect. They also added that addingcinnamon to diet can help to lower the glucose level. Studies revealed thatspices such as cinnamon (Ròu Guì; Cinnamomum cassia), and carnation,walnut, green tea, and mint have similar effects with insulin action in termsBy SN Ijeoma Amaoji T2 2020of reduction of sugar level and the most active of them is cinnamon(Hasanzade et al., 2013).C Insulin/Oral hypoglycemic medications.Insulin alone or in addition to oral glycemic medications are universally usedto treat /manage diabetes due to their ability to bring down blood sugarlevels. Research has shown that insulin offers a unique ability to controlhyperglycemia, when used from the time of diagnosis in some circumstancesand when metabolic control is disturbed by medical illness, procedures, ortherapy, and also being used in the longer term ( Home et al., 2014).O Prevention of diabetic complications. The ultimate goal of diabetesmanagement is prevention of long-term complications. Uncontrolleddiabetes can lead to a number of short and long-term health complications,including hypoglycemia, heart disease, nerve damage and amputation, andvision problems. According to Vinik & Vinik (2003), chronic complicationscan be devastating to patients with diabetes mellitus. The major cause ofmorbidity and mortality among these patients, are the complications likeCardiovascular illness, macrovascular disease, with heart attacks, strokes,and gangrene; and microvascular disease, with retinopathy, nephropathy, andneuropathy (P. 571).By SN Ijeoma Amaoji T2 2020T Within one year of being diagnosed.In most cases, people are diabetic for quite a while without knowing beforereceiving the actual diagnosis for it. Complications are said to begin todevelop after having diabetes for a number of years. I chose the time of oneyear in consideration to the actual length of time they must have developeddiabetes without knowing. There are no set time frame for complications tostart occurring. It all depends on how uncontrolled the management hasbeen. The duration of diabetes and the degree of glycemic control achievedare noted to be risk factors for complications (Nickerson & Dutta, 2012).ReferencesSelvin, E., & Parrinello, C. M. (2013). Age-related differences in glycemic control in diabetes.Diabetologia, 56(12), 2549 2551. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-013-3078-7Hasanzade, F., Toliat, M., Emami, S. A., & Emamimoghaadam, Z. (2013). The Effect ofCinnamon on Glucose of Type II Diabetes Patients. Journal of traditional and complementarymedicine, 3(3), 171 174. https://doi.org/10.4103/2225-4110.114900Home, P., Riddle, M., Cefalu, W. T., Bailey, C. J., Bretzel, R. G., Del Prato, S., Leroith, D.,Schernthaner, G., van Gaal, L., & Raz, I. (2014). Insulin therapy in people with type 2 diabetes:opportunities and challenges? Diabetes care, 37(6), 1499 1508. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc13-2743Vinik, A. I., & Vinik, E. (2003). Prevention of the complications of diabetes. The Americanjournal of managed care, 9(3 Suppl), S63 S84. Retrieved fromhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12653455/Nickerson, H. D., & Dutta, S. (2012). Diabetic complications: current challenges andopportunities. Journal of cardiovascular translational research, 5(4), 375 379.https://doi.org/10.1007/s12265-012-9388-1