The Best WritersWeek 4 Personality / Motivation and ValuesLesson OverviewLesson: Personality / Motivation and ValuesThis lesson is the third from the section on Consumer’s Hearts and Minds. It introduces ideas of understanding the self as a unique entity, focusing on personality theory, motivations and values. This week covers a lot of ground because many of these concepts are inter-related.Lesson Contents:· L4.1: Introduces personality· L4.2: Discusses philosophy of the self· L4.3: Introduces different psychodynamic theories of the self· L4.4: Explains brand personality as the anthropomorphism of marketing objects· L4.5: Introduces consumer motivation and values· L4.6: Compares different perspectives in motivation theories· L4.7: Illustrates the different types and levels of involvement· L4.8: Discusses the role of values in consumptionLecture Slides: Download .Week 4 Personality / Motivation and ValuesL4.1: Introduction to PersonalityLecture:SPEAKER 1copyright in these lectures is either owned by the andSPEAKER 0you are a third party who was licenced the anSPEAKER 1Yue to use its students may use the recording for personal study only. No lecture, maybe communicated online, copied or shared without the prior permission off the menu.SPEAKER 0Everyone. And welcome to the first part ofthe Week Fours Lecture, which is introduction to personality and this section because we’re dealing with multiple topics this week. So I’m going to spend the first half talking about what personality is. And whereas other sections will talk about different theories in terms of our understanding of personality, all right, so personality is often a term that gets thrown around willy nilly. It has its Maur everyday usage in terms of I have no personality or he has no personality. Well, they have no personality, which is basically trying to say that there is no distinguishing features. Thiss person is like everyone else. However, that is not the case. Everyone is slightly different, and personality is a theory. That is our concept that is trying to capture why individuals are all different. What makes our individual reactions and behaviours and who we are all slightly different from each other. In terms of the topics I’m going to cover within the personality section off this week’s lecture, I’m gonna deal with philosophies of itself. So personality theory emerged out off a research interest into thie inner lives of people. And we’re going to look at some of those psychodynamic theories off personality that have emerged from that study. And I was going to talk about how the concept of brand personality, which essentially is applying the philosophy of itself to objects. In this case, the object is brand with the assumption that a brand can be considered like a person. We’ll talk about that soon, so I’m going to do all of this in one video. Just Teo is the burden. In terms of number of videos created, so does the philosophy off the self. This goes way, way back to ancient Greek philosophical thought. I think. Therefore, I am Socrates Aristotle. All of these thinkers from ancient times all questioned what it meant, what it means to be me and who is thiss that is thinking about these things. So there is a There’s a list here on reddit of reading lists around Phyllis philosophy and some of these basic readings all that you immerse yourselves in those readings if you’d like. However, essentially the philosophy of the self is trying to answer these questions. Who am I? Who was I? Who can I be? Why am I? And who is the meat asking all of these questions? So this idea that the self is both that the self that is doing and thinking and the self is also the person who was thinking about thinking. So there seems to be in terms of our consciousness, this ability to think about ourselves in the abstract as well as to think about ourselves as we’re doing things and feeling things. So it’s the self in the moment as a physical being the sensing perceptual creature that we have reviewed previously. But in terms of personality theory and these philosophies of the self, it’s this meta cognition that we have about ourselves, this idea that we think about ourselves in terms of sort of in the third person thing, idea that we think about ourselves and we think about thinking so why don’t market is care about these sorts of theories. Well, what we know is that people pay attention to and remember messages that are relevant to their self. So when we talked previously about increasing memory, this idea of making messages congruent with the thie intended audiences perception of themselves. So having the people in the ad look like themselves in some way doing tasks that they would normally do. So this idea of being personally relevant increases people people’s attention and retention to that information. So what we don’t know, though, is how self relevance or this idea of self congruence is determined. Is it just because someone looks like May or is the same gender is may or is doing the same things as May that I see them as similar to myself, or is there some sort of deeper meaning? But behind what we see a similar and dissimilar and also how stable are these perceptions of ourselves and these perceptions of others is dissimilar and similar to ourselves over time. So this is where we get into arguments over nature versus nurture, whether it’s in our DNA according to nature, or whether it’s the way we were raised, which is the nurture argument versus the state versus trade argument, which is basically saying our personality is dictated by the situation. We happen to find ourselves at that particular moment in time versus trade theory, which says that our personalities are stable and irrespective off the situation. We have these stable personality types or characteristics that manifest over and over and over again. So the other things that personality influences in terms ofthe marketers to personality influences out brand choices. So this idea that we look for brands that are match our personalities, this brand image congruence, it affects how we perceive advertising. So the fact that we pay attention to ads that we see is similar to ourselves or representing ourselves in some way. It affects our product selection. If you’re an extroverted, you’re more likely to seek out holidays where lots of people will be involved. Whereas if you’re an introvert more likely to see seek more, more solitary pursuits in your holidays. It will affect our shopping behaviour again. Extroverts are more likely to feel comfortable in crowded shopping environments, whereas introverts are not and the more likely Teo. Avoid those environments or use shopping behaviours that arm or learned Cem possibly more online shopping. It affects the level of loyalty. So this idea that we are more loyal to brands and products that we see as similar to ourselves. It also affects our word of mouth, this idea of engaging with others to talk about products and brands positive and negative experiences. So that concludes our introduction to personality. I will come back in a new video to talk about psychodynamic theories.Kassarjian, H. H. (1971). . Journal of marketing Research, 8(4), 409-418.Week 4 Personality / Motivation and ValuesL4.2 Psychodynamic Theories of PersonalityLecture:SPEAKER 1copyright in these lectures is either owned by the and you are a third party who was licenced the an Yue to use.SPEAKER 0Its students may use the recording for personal study only.SPEAKER 1No lecture, maybe communicated online, copied or shared without the prior permission off the menu.SPEAKER 0Everyone and welcome to the second part off Weak Force Lecture where we talk about psychodynamic theories in this section or in the following videos, I’m going to concentrate on Freudian and union psychodynamic theories of personality. But in this particular video, I’m just going to introduce what psychodynamic theories relate Teo and how they and some of the basis from which they have developed. So it’s like identity theories emerged in the late 1/19 century, 18 hundreds 19th century where there was a great push for scientific investigation. Three great scientific leaps off the industrial age is where these started to emerge from. But in terms ofthe our philosophical understanding of who we are, one of the greatest changes to our perceptions off who we are as people and thinking about ourselves as people was the technological invention off the mirror. So before the widespread use of mirrors in society Essentially, we had a lot more explanations that were driven by religion and this idea of soul being the essence of a human being. This is because our understanding of the self was driven by the fact that our experience of the world was defined by what we could see from behind our eyes. So we saw the world basically from ourselves outwards. Whereas when the mirror was introduced, we start what we started to see ourselves more as the image of what others would see us as so over time, this idea ofthe being able Teo, identify a person or a individual based on not just how they’d looked, but this idea ofthe reflecting back to ourselves, who we are started to emerge. So from this standpoint, psychodynamic theories emerged a few 100 years later. But basically we had gone through a philosophical adjustment. Prior tio thie industrial age when psychodynamic theory started to emerge. So this idea that because of mirrors, we understood that the self could be viewed from the outside lead. Teo researchers inverted commas like Freud, believing that they could understand thie inner self, often individual as an outsider. So this is what these theories of personality often try tto achieve. They are trying to achieve an outsider understanding or classification off another individual’s personality. So we end up with these arguments such as Are we born with a personality? So can I, as an outsider, look atyour DNA and determine whether what parts of your DNA and your Jean Paul and Jane makeup dictate the kind of person that you are now equally? If I’m going to take a nurture perspective, how can it assumes that I, as an individual or as an observer, can see how you were brought up? I can see the dynamics between you, your parents, your siblings and other events in your life that have moulded you into the person that you are. And so we have these two opposing views, and BA consensus basically is. It’s a bit of both. However, we’re not sure in what proportion. Nature versus nurture dictates who we are as individuals and in what circumstances one might take precedence over another. So there’s still a lot of work to be done in this particular area in terms of understanding people’s personalities. So that ends the introduction to psychodynamic theories. I’m going to come back in separate videos to deal with both Freudian and union perspectives,L4.2 Psychodynamic Theories of PersonalityL4.2.1 Freudian TheoryLecture:SPEAKERcopyright in these lectures is either owned by the and you are a third party who was licenced the an Yue to use. Its students may use the recording for personal study only. No lecture, maybe communicated online, copied or shared without the prior permission off the menu. Everyone and welcome to the first video lecture on thie. First of the psychodynamic theories are going to talk about, which is Freudian theory and just as a note. While Freud has been largely debunked as a cycle analytic theory in terms ofthe a lot of his theories around the unconscious and thie use of dreams, Teo diagnose people with psychological problems. He is the granddaddy off psychology, So no matter how much we know that his theories in a lot of ways don’t work, Hey is always the first person we go back to when we talk about personality theory, Sir, in terms ofthe the basic pre Mai’s off Freudian theory is that the unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of all human motivation. So when we get to motivation a bit later in this lecture, a lot of that theory is also based on Freud’s work, because basically Hey sees motivation and our personality as being inextricably linked together, and I’ll explain later how that is the case. So one of the biggest criticisms and Freud is that well, hey, was very What’s the word I’m looking for obsessed with sex S O in terms of one of the most. One of the biggest reasons he’s often criticised is that he often laid all unconscious, needs down Teo, the need, the desire or the lack off sex a person was getting in their life. So in terms ofthe frady and representation off the self, just going to talk about basic personality theory, he broke the self into three systems. We have the it the ego and the super ego. So what this actually does is that the is essentially the monkey. This is sex, drugs and rock and roll. This is getting the primal urges that a person has that basically directs us to immediate gratification. On the other hand, we have super ego, which is our internal expression off society’s moral and ethical codes of conduct. So essentially, this is the O. C. D. This is the school teacher and a head basically saying you can’t do that. And finally there is the ego, which is our conscious control over these two other systems, and its thie is not these. It’s the egos job to balance our monkey and our urges to conform and obey. And according to Freudian theory, if there is a Nim balance in any off these systems, then we have mental illnesses and psychological problems. And the combination off the systems also leads to individual differences in how we behave, which is our outward expression of our personalities in terms of the way and the types of gratification in which we seek. So Friday himself was quite interested in thie early childhood development. So when he was looking at personality theories, he was focused on how we emerged from being a newborn baby into a separate not necessarily adult, but a separate individual that recognises ourselves as different from our mother and our father. So you might have heard of Freud’s either piss syndrome, which is based on the I think it’s ancient Greek Storey ofthe purpose who basically kills his father in order to marry his mother. Like I said, he was obsessed with sex. Basically, the Oedipus syndrome is a metaphor for how we emerges individuals in terms of our understanding and recognising that we are separate from our mothers because off the mother’s relationship to the father. So we call this the try it relationship, this idea that you know, for us to understand ourselves as an individual, and we need to recognise that we are separate from those around us and that they are not beholden to our needs entirely, either. Sorry, I’m getting a bit di aggressing into a lot more detail into Freudian theory than you probably interested in. But anyway, Brody and stages of development basically are trying to track this process off us, emerging as an individual separated from the mother through our stages ofthe going through five different stages of development that represent our obsessions with certain types of gratification. Let this video explain a bit more think is crossed. So Freud developed the psychoanalytic theory, which proposes that unconscious motivations influence personality development. According to Freud’s theory, the mind has three components. The ed, the ego and the super ego. Freud also proposed five stages of development that we go through as we grow up. They are the aural stage when pleasure comes from sucking and biting the anal stage. When pleasure comes from using the bladder and sphincter muscles. The phallic stage when pleasure comes from self stimulation of the genitals, the Leighton see stage when sexual feelings recede a bit and the genital stage when pleasure comes from the genitals and mature sexual relationships. If we get too much or too little pleasure in any of these stages, we can become fixated on that stage and focused too much on the pleasures associated with that stage. When our drives and desires get out of control, however, we may use one or more defence mechanisms, which are all a form of denial to protect ourselves. The second personality theory. Well, so okay said, I don’t know why that’s coming up. My apologies. So in terms ofthe Freud’s theories, so I did say that he was quite obsessed with sexual explanations for our needs and desires and our fixations, our obsessions for certain types of gratification. So what? That video went through them. So just in case you don’t know when they talked about the phallic stage, being about the general tools, a phallus or being phallic means to look like a Penis So when Freud is talking about being fixated on the genital stage, he’s actually all the phallic stages, actually talking about both males and females being obsessed with male genitalia boys. They’re obsessed with their own. With girls, they’re obsessed with their fathers. I know it’s complicated. It’s Freud, all right. So those other stages ofthe Freud’s development So, like I said, if you the failure to advance through these stages leads to a crisis which then exhibited in our particular traits and personality behaviours well later in life. So for the Freud are individual differences who we are, as the self was very much about virtue and how our mother and our father raise us through these five stages successfully into a mature and functioning adult. So that is the end of the section on Freud. You could do a whole PhD on Freud. This’s all I have time for going to come back in another video and talk about Young, who was a student ofthe Freud but has Bean much for accepted in in terms of his theoretical developmentL4.2 Psychodynamic Theories of PersonalityDiscussion Forum 4.1Discussion Forum: The adage “sex sells” is a truism often quoted in marketing (usually in TV shows and movies by people who don’t know what marketing is). Like Freud was criticised for attributing sexual motivations to human personality and behaviours there is a contentious debate as to the effectiveness of sex and sexual imagery in marketing communications. 1. Do you think sex sells? Why/why not? Reichert, T. (2003). . Sex in advertising: Perspectives on the erotic appeal, 11-38.