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15Mar 2022 byNUR 620 Discussion Board #2Grand TheoryNOTE: This Discussion Board does not follow all general instructions. See instructions below.General Instructions for all Discussion Boards:1. Complete required reading before creating your post.2. Initial post: Each student creates a new thread in the forum as the initial posting of their own that is 250-300 words (use yourWord Count tool) and includes at least TWO scholarly references to support the posting. One of the references is theappropriate text and the other a scholarly, peer reviewed journal article. If the professor responds and asks you forclarification or a question, you must respond to the professor.3. Responding to posts: Each student must respond once during the week. The response must be thoughtful andreference-based. The response must be 100-125 words. Please put thought into your statements. General posts will notcount; you must provide additional knowledge and add to the discussion to receive credit for the posting. ONE reference isrequired for response. It may be one of the original references the poster used.4. Students who do not post by the due dates will be considered absent and will earn a grade of 0% forthe Discussion post. Discussion board posts that are incomplete or do not meet the requirementsmay earn a partial grade or zero.5. References must be in APA Style (7th edition) and included at the end of both postings hangingindentation not required.6. The reference is not included in the word count. HINT: To avoid losing work and check your wordcount, write your post in Word or Google doc, do the word count, and when finished copy & pasteinto the Discussion Board.Rubric for Discussion Board #2Criteria5 PointstotalExceeds expectations90-100%Meets Expectations83-89%Does Not Meet0-82%Initial Post(3.5 pt)350-400wordsDescribes the assigned theory and theoristwith detail and addresses all the requiredelements. Text citation. Follow the example.350-400 wordsDescribes the theory and thetheorist but missing some detailor does not address all therequired elements. Text citation.Lacks depth ormissing significantdetailsPeerResponse(1.5 pt)100-125wordsSelects a different paradigm (Human Needs,Interactive Process, or Unitary Process) thantheir own original post. Provides a thoughtfulcomment on Peer’s work. Then describeshow the theory can be used in their ownpractice area. No citation required.Response lacking in specifics orcontent.Not completedAPA Formatting .25 deduction for each error typeElting NUR 620 Spring 2022 1NUR 620 Discussion Board #2Grand TheoryInitial Post: Each student will be assigned a grand theory with its theorist. In the correspondingchapter (below) read about your theorist. Provide a condensed, descriptive analysis of yourgrand theory, using the criteria from McEwan and Wills (Ch. 6). See examplebelow. 350-400 words. This includes1. Very Brief Background of Theorist2. Philosophical underpinnings of the theory3. Major assumptions, concepts, and relationships (include description ofhow the 4 parts of the Nursing Metaparadigm are fully or partiallypresent)4. Usefulness (in the past and now)5. Testability (skip for Discussion Board)6. Parsimony (skip for Discussion Board)7. Value in extending nursing sciencePeer Response: Read some of the Original Posts of your peers. Choose one you findinteresting but not your own theorist. Considering your own nursing specialty/practice area,briefly describe how the theory your peer presented can be used in your patient population.100-125 words. See example below.Grand Models and Theories(will be assigned in class)Human NeedsCh 7Interactive ProcessCh 8Unitary ProcessCh 9AbdellahHendersonJohnsonNightingale (example)NeumanOremArtinianErickson, Tomlin, & SwainKingLevineRoyWatsonNewmanParseRogersExample of an Initial Discussion Post with APA Citation(In this post you can condense content from the textbook mixed with original writing)Human NeedsFlorence Nightingale: Nursing: What It Is and What It Is Not1. Background: Nightingale’s Theories were developed before germ theory was widely accepted.She was from a wealthy English family but chose to care for the sick. As a young nursing leadershe was asked to help British soldiers during wartime. There she observed the terrible conditionsand began developing her disease management theory. She was very religious, basing her careElting NUR 620 Spring 2022 2NUR 620 Discussion Board #2Grand Theoryon her faith, and so believed everyone deserved civilized care. She was a government healthstatistician and assisted with the public health system development. She founded the NightingaleSchool for Nurses at St. Thomas’ Hospital.2. Philosophical Underpinnings of the Theory: She was focused on healing and how leadership andglobal action are required to promote health. She believed only women had the righttemperament and virtuous nature to be nurses. She was very strict in the enforcement of herpolicies of care and cleanliness. She believed nurses have their own practice but followedphysicians’ prescriptions faithfully. Her educational theory/model is based on anticipating andmeeting the needs of patients and how excellent nursing practice can meet those needs.3. Major Assumptions, Concepts, and Relationships: Her theory includes the nursing metaparadigmconcepts humans, environment, health, and nursing even though this wasn’t proposed yet.Essential for a healthy environment were pure air and water, efficient sewage drainage, minimalnoise, ample light, nutritious food, proper beds and bedding, personal cleanliness, and socialcontact. Buildings should be constructed to let in lots of light and fresh air. Nursing care wasneeded to meet these needs and delivered where patients lived and in the hospital setting.Management of care makes a difference in healing the sick and people who were in contact withthem.4. Usefulness: Nightingale influenced hospitals, community health, nursing practice and educationbefore other theories were in use.Nightingale’s work can still be applied today when nursesexamine the needs of patients and the environment. Examples in the book talk about chronic andinfectious disease. Right now, it applies to Covid-19 with fresh air, light, minimizing contact withother people when sick, but also looking at buildings and public transportation and air circulation.5. Value in Extending Nursing Science: She was a consultant and health statistician whose writingsand theories advanced healthcare and nursing. She was deeply involved in nursing educationand promoting the science of public health, hospital administration, community health, and globalhealth.McEwen, M., & Wills, E. M. (2019). Theoretical basis for nursing (5th ed.), Wolters Kluwer Health.Example of a Peer Response Discussion Post with APAHi Andrew,I understand now that Nightingale had both a disease management theory and a nursing education theory. I neverreally thought about how the two were separate, but really about the same thing taking care of patients (McEwen& Wills, 2019). Since I graduated in December 2019 I haven’t been able to get a nursing job that I wanted. So Ihave been working in vaccine clinics and Covid-19 testing centers. When I do teaching I am totally usingNightingale’s disease management theory about cleanliness, fresh air and circulation, and preventing transmission(getting or spreading Covid) at home and out in public. Thanks for your post.McEwen, M., & Wills, E. M. (2019). Theoretical basis for nursing (5th ed.), Wolters Kluwer Health.Elting NUR 620 Spring 2022 3