The Best WritersResearch Ethics: What Are TheyDefinition-A set of guidelinesEthical ConcernsRelationship between Science and SocietyGovernment funding of scientific researchCongressional influence on which studies are fundedCorporate funding of scientific researchResearch Ethics: What Are TheyProfessional IssuesScientific MisconductFaking dataOther less serious issues as failing to present data or changing the design to meet pressure from a funding sourceDeveloping an institutional culture of ethical behavior best way of combating this.Treatment of Research ParticipantsAPA Code of EthicsGeneral Principlesto guide and inspire psychologists towards the very highest ideals of the professionStandardsestablish specific rules of conductEthical Standards for ResearchAPA code of ethics— 10 guiding principles to direct behavior of researchersIssues to consider when conducting researchInstitutional approval must be obtainedInformed consentDispensing with it informed consentMinors—need to obtain their assentPassive versus active consentGeneral PrinciplesBeneficence and Risk vs. Benefitsconstantly weigh the costs/benefits of the researchRisks include physical, emotional, social risksFidelity and Responsibilityresponsibility to societyIntegritybeing extremely honest in all aspects of researchJusticetreat everyone with fairness, avoid biasRespect for People’s Rights and Dignityprotecting the rights of those involved in researchGuidelines for Research with HumansInstitutional Review Board (IRB)At least 5 members with varying backgrounds and expertise.Scientists and nonscientists, at least 1 person not affiliated with the institution.Reviews proposals to protect rights and welfare of human participants.Guidelines for Research with HumansInformed ConsentDocumented description of the research project before participationBriefly describes purpose of the studyDescribes potential risks, discomforts, adverse effectsTold that they may withdraw at any time without penaltyWritten informed consent is essential when participants are exposed to MORE THAN MINIMAL RISKharm or discomfort experienced is not greater than what they might experience in daily lives or during routine physical/psychological tests.If risks are more than minimal, individuals are considered to be “at risk.”When individuals are at risk, researchers are ethically obligated to protect participants’ welfare.Research that places participants at risk should not be carried out if there are alternative methods available that have lower risk.Informed consent is not necessary when researchers observe public behavior.Guidelines for Research with HumansConfidentialityOne way of reducing social riskData should be collected so that no identifiable aspects can be traced to any one individualAssign participant numbers to data (No names or SS#’s)“confidential” is NOT the same as “anonymous”— responses are anonymous when individuals do not provide any identifying information.Confidentiality is a special problem in Internet research, even though participants perceive their responses to be anonymous.Guidelines for Research with HumansPrivacyis the right of individuals to decide how information about them is communicated to others.Researcher should explain to participants the ways in which their information will be protected and kept confidential.Informed consent is not required when researchers observe people’s behavior in public settings.Privacy (continued)3 major dimensions should be considered when trying to decide whether behavior is public or private:Sensitivity of the information— more sensitive information is typically regarded as more private (e.g., sexual practices, religious beliefs)Setting of the information— in public settings, people give up a certain degree of privacy (e.g., sporting events, concerts)Method of dissemination of the information— sensitive information should be reported in ways so that specific individuals cannot be identified (e.g., group averages)Guidelines for Research with HumansDeception when info is withheld or when participants are intentionally misinformed about aspect of research.Pros: Why do we deceive?Allows researchers to study individuals’ natural behavior.Allows opportunities to investigate behaviors & mental processes not easily studied using nondeceptive methods.Deception—refers to deceitTypesActive—deception by commissionPassive—deception by omissionType of studies in which it raises ethical concernsStudies that involve invasion of privacy and/or may harm the participantsCons of DeceptionWhy should we NOT deceive?Deception contradicts the principle of informed consent.Relationship bw researcher & participant is not open & honest.Frequent use of deception may make individuals suspicious about research and psychology.Deception is justified onlywhen the study is very important,no other methods for conducting research are available,deception would not influence individuals’ decision to participate in the research.when the deception does NOT involve misinforming participants about significant risks, discomforts, etcDebriefingWhen deception is used, after the experiment the researcher must debrief participantsFull disclosure of the nature of the study involves 2 important things…1. DEHOAX =reveal the true purpose of the study,Inform participants the reasons for the deception, &Discuss any misconceptions they may have2. DESENSITIZE =Remove any harmful effects of the deceptionReduce any negative feelings from participationDebriefingDifficult to doif person terminates the study earlyIf connection with the study is broken by computer crash or power outageWays to maximize probability of debriefingHave participant provide an email addressprovide a ‘leave the study’ radio buttonIncorporate a debriefing page into the program so it is delivered directly to the participantEthical Issues in electronic researchInformed consentComplicated because there is no clear distinction between what is public and what is private over the internetHow to obtain informed consentCan put a consent to participate form on lineDoes the participant understand itHow do you answer questions about the studyPrivacy and confidentialityHackers can obtain the dataBut data can be encrypted and the only connection to the participant is the IP addressResearch with AnimalsShould animals be used in research?The answer to this question is fiercely debated.Pro’s:Animal studies can be much more highly controlled than human studies.Important areas of research can be examined that would be less appropriate in human samples.Important Considerations: Must follow federal, state, and local laws on use of animals in researchGuidelines for Animal ResearchAPA Ethical Standards and IACUCs:The researcher who uses animal subjects is ethically obligated to look out for their welfare and to treat them humanely.Any pain, discomfort, or death must be justified by the potential scientific, educational, or applied goals.