Since the 1990s, Asian countries had been increasingly riding on the global movement of public sector reforms. After the 1997 Asian economic crisis, which cast doubt on the ‘East Asian miracle’, there had been calls for institutional reforms in some Asian countries in order to cope with the impact of globalization and to catch up with some recognized ‘best practices. Those countries relying on the assistance of international organizations or developed donor countries, such as Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh were particularly prone to imposed conditions of aid in the form of requirements on specific reform targets and strategies. Broadly speaking, two dominant paradigms have the most impact on Asian institutional reforms: the New Public Management (NPM) and ‘the good governance models. In addition to economic and fiscal pressures, domestic political changes and regime transition have also induced a new articulation of governance and institutional configurations. ‘Socialist’ countries like China and Vietnam have also embarked on major economic and administrative transformations as part of their journey of systemic reform and ideological reversion.
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