Fordism and Human Resource Management

Rensis Likert’s (1903 1981) four-systems approach Workers don’t accept coercive management Four-systems leadership approaches:  Order similar from  Exploitative-authoritative: motivation occurs through fear and threats; decisions are concentrated with top management.  Order similar from  Benevolent-authoritative: motivation occurs through both rewards and threats; decisions are made in top management with possible opportunity for comment at the lower level Order similar from   Consultative: motivation occurs through rewards; some low-level participation in decisions Participative: motivation occurs through rewards; decision making is distributed throughout the organization  Order similar from  Critically assessing Human Resource Management Managers (not workers) identified as main obstacle to making organizations more productive Semi-autonomous groups function differently from top-down hierarchical structures  Order similar from