The Best Writers“The Elements of Early African Civilization”The History of Africa: The Quest for Eternal Harmony, 3rd Ed, Molefi Kete AsanteKemet: The First Major Civilization of AfricaKemet:first major civilization of Africameaning “land of the Blacks”later called Egypt by the Greeksfirst location where human beings organize themselves as a nationfirst towns and villages under the control of a central government emerged in KemetKemetic PhasesArchaic Period (3400-2600 BCE)Old Kingdom (2685-2200 BCE)First Intermediate Period (2200-2000 BCE)Middle Kingdom (2040-1785 BCE)Second Intermediate Period (1800-1600 BCE)New Kingdom (1570-1085 BCE)Resurgent Kingdom (750-590 BCE)Do you know the meaning of BCE?before common eraprior to year 1 or year 1 common eraimagine year 1, that is, 2021 years agothen further subtract 3000 yearsThe Archaic Period (3400-2600 BCE)Unification of KemetNarmer 3400 BC, also known as Menesconquered the other kings of the Nile Valleycombined lower and upper Kemetconsidered the symbol of god on earthNile runs down to the north from the African highlands to the MediterraneanNorth icalled lower KemetSouth is Upper KemetUnification of KemetNarmer 3400 BC42 ethnic groups or administrative kingships came under his ruleNarmer Per-aa or pharaoh (Hebrew)an incarnate of godNo king could serve if he did not have the direct link to the supreme deityAll priesthoods recognized the Per-aa as the son of God or sa RaBeginnings of International Law in Ancient KemetScholar Jeremy I. Levitt asserts that Ptah-Hotep, the first major philosopher posits the idea of political rules or international lawChallenging the idea international law began with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 between European nationsEurocentric history omits the importance of African contributions to human civilizationTreaty of Westphalia based on ideas from Africa, specifically Mesopotamia that had rules about interstate interactions, as well as Kemet, Nubia, Mali, Ghana, among other nationsNo kingdom, nation, or government has existed as long as Kemet.Lasted 3,000 compared to the United States which has only existed since 1776Writing in Early KemetWriting dates to Kemet starting around 3400 BCEexecuted on any type of surface but primarily on papyrus.The three primary purposes of writing consist of:Recording historical eventsCommunication between the king, priest , and scribes;Literary and instructional writingsGerman archeologist, Gunter Dreyer found writing dating back to to 3400 to 3300:ivory labels found attached to bags of linen and oil in the tomb of King Scorpion I in Egyptinscriptions found on pottery in a cemetery dateidea of using marking to store and record information occurred in Africa before anywhere else in the worldWriting in Early KemetGod Tehutiinvented writing and served as “the scribe and historian of the gods”tracked timecreated mathematics, art, and scienceability to convert spoken words into material objectsWriting in Early KemetMdju netjer: “divine words”Cikam: actual name of Kemetic languageDate back to 3400 to 3300early stages of cuneiform, wedge writing, in a consistent form goes back to around 2600true start of a writing system with a combination of representation of vowels and syllables used to express ideas391 CEAttempt to erase the language and the spiritual traditions started approximately with the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius 1 (379-395)insisting in the adoption of ChristianityBetween 535 and 537 CE, a General Narses raided the Temple of Auset, arrested priests and priestesses and sacred items.18th linguists start to study the Rosetta Stonea bilingual text written in Egyptian hieroglyphics, demotic, and GreekMade progress in deciphering Kemetic languageArchitecture of KemetSaqqara PyramidFirst masonry constructionbuilt by Imhotep for Per-aa Zoser in the 3rd Dynasty, 2630 BCESaqqara site featured a step pyramid structure used as a burial chamber, temples, including a funerary temple still standing todayArchitecture of KemetKing Khafra builds sphinx (2558 2532 BCSSphinx derives from GreekKemetic people refer to the structure as Heru-em-aktHeru of the Horizon, the Place of Heru, and Ra of Two Horizons.Hundreds of sphinxes found in 1798Architecture of KemetSpecializationEngineeringArchitectureMathematicsunderstood the mechanics of materials, machines, and hydraulics.Great Pyramidone of the Seven Wonders of the WorldBuilt by Khufu of the fourth Dynasty around 2560Construction took 20 yearsTwo primary theories of how the blocks were set in placeconstruction of a straight or spiral ramp which was covered with mud and water to facilitate the movement of the blockslong levers with a short-angled foot were used to move the blocksContributions of Ancient KemetProfessionsDeveloped a number of professionsWeaving, wood working, shipbuilding, glassmaking, leather work, potteryConstruction of pyramids and other structures:dams, dikes, canals, pool, fortresses, instruments to build and measureMath and SciencePhysics, chemistry, zoology, geology, medicine, pharmacology, and mathematicsScience of mummificationSurgeryMedicine:200 diseasesdiagnosed and treatedSurgeries conductedAwareness of blood circulationAncient Roots of Modern PhilosophyKemet provided the foundations of modern philosophystudy of the physical universehuman relationshipsspiritual mattersImhotepLived around 2700 BCEthe first philosopher to deal with a wide range of questions dealing with time, physical and mental disease, and immortality.See page 45 of this reading for more on Kemetic philosophers.Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information ScienceThe Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information ScienceIn this article, Dr. Zulu explains:“The libraries of Kemet were not only places of archives, sacred words, papyrus manufacturing, and the like, they were also centers of learning, that combined the functions of their libraries and temples into universities. Hence, Kemet became a land of temples, libraries, and universities. As a result, the “temple-library-university” became the key center of ancient Kemetic intellectual and spiritual activity.” (9)First mathematical and science books emerged in KemetRhind Papyrus: mathematics and scienceEbers Papyrus: medicineDeities of Ancient Kemetspiritual beings that controlled or represented aspects of human lifeNun, chaos, a watery substance gave birth to AtumAtum, represented by an old man, head of a frog, bettle or serpentOther names for Atum are Ra, Ptah, AmenGod of creationCreated:Shu, air and Tefnut moistureChildren: Geb the earth and Nut: the sky and created earth beings Ausar, Auset, Seth, and Nebhet.Video provides an overview of the Legend of Ausar or Osiris: can also further explore other deities of the Kemetic Patheon using this link: is the process of mummification?cleaning the bodyremoval of organscorpse was dried with natron a form of sodium carbonate70 days which entailed a complex of ceremoniesObjective: eternal lifeperson received a massive funerala special ritual referred to as “Opening the Mouth” which entailed using special instruments to restore the sensesFood, drink, and other items placed in the burial chamberAlso illustrated on the walls of the chamber and a stele or stone slab noted the person’s name, rank, and good deeds.Only the king received this type of burial during the Old Kingdom (2685-2200 BCE)New Kingdom (1570-1085 BCE) this burial extended to royalty and noblesNew research reveals regular Kemetic people also buried in their own tombsThe AfterlifeWhat were the prevalent ideas about the afterlife for Kemetic people?possible for individuals with pure soulssoul needed to survive the journey of the underworld where Ausar (Osiris) controlledheart should be as light as a feather and pureMaatIdea of Maat guided humans in the physical realmMaat symbolized:order, balance, harmony, justice, truth, righteousness, and reciprocityPeople that maintained Maat considered strongLosing Maat causes weaknessThink about and consider the following:How would your life change if you actively embodied Maat: order, balance, harmony, justice, truth, righteousness, and reciprocity?