Describe the impacts of the event.

Essay Content Topic/Disaster – Hurricane Katrina The essay is a case study of a past disaster. Essays must include the following information: Description of the Event This section can function as the introduction to the essay. Only the specific disaster should be described here rather than describing the generalities of the hazard. For example, in an essay on the Haiti earthquake, it is not necessary to include information on general aspects of earthquakes in this section (i.e. why subduction zones are associated with earthquakes). Causes In this section, you can address the event from the general to the specific (i.e. a discussion of what causes that type of disaster and then focusing specifically on the cause of your case study). Impacts Describe the impacts of the event. These could include social, economic, and/or environmental impacts. Response Describe the reaction to the specific disaster. Were there proactive responses to the hazard in place or were they more commonly reactive? Recovery What has changed since the disaster? Have new policies or regulations been developed? Provide a description of the resiliency of the local area. Suggestions Reflect on what further work has been suggested as well as your own thoughts about what needs to be completed to protect people and property from a similar event in the future. Formatting GEOG 2152: Geography of Hazards Essay Guidelines – A title page must be included with specific information listed on it (see Essay Writing Criteria) – The text of the essay should be 5 to 6 pages in length (text does not include figures, maps, graphs, images, the title page, or the bibliography) – The essay must be double spaced, and the bibliography must be single spaced – Use margins of 2.54 cm (1 inch) on all margins (both sides, top, and bottom) – Use Times New Roman font, size 12 – Page numbers must be included and properly formatted Essay Writing Criteria – the essay must be organized into several headings – this is a research-based essay (not an opinion-based essay), therefore, a formal thesis statement is not required – your essay must contain at least one relevant map and it should be referred to as a ‘figure’ – graphs, photos, and diagrams are encouraged and should all be referred to as ‘figures’ – do not use stylistically weak expressions (“this essay is about”, “the topic of this essay is”) – do not use personal pronouns such as “I” or “we” or “our” in a research-based essay – do not use contractions (“can’t”, “won’t”, “should’ve”, etc.) – write in a formal, direct, and serious tone (do not use slang) – do not write out numbers in words unless they are single digits (but never write out numbers in words if they have decimals, are associated with units, or start with a symbol such as a dollar sign); do not start a sentence with a number – do not write out units in words; for example “kilometres” should be written as km, “degrees Celsius” should be written as °C, and “dollars” should be written as $ – figures must be embedded within the essay (do not place them in an appendix at the end of the essay) – every figure and every table must be labelled – provide a caption (single spaced) at the bottom of all figures and at the top of all tables – refer to every figure or table somewhere in the text of your essay (a figure or table should not be included in the essay if you do not specifically mention it in the text of your essay) – all figures and tables must be cited such that the citation is found at the end of the figure/table caption in (last name, year) format; include the full reference for the figure/table in your bibliography – the title page should include a title for your essay, your name, your student number, the course code, the instructor’s name, and the date of submission – page numbers should be included in the bottom right corner of the page – no page numbers should appear on the title page or in the bibliography; the first page of your written text should be labelled “1” GEOG 2152: Geography of Hazards Essay Referencing These must be included within the text of the essay (do not use footnotes). Note in the following example that the citation is placed within the sentence and is followed by punctuation. If there are more than two authors, you would write (Brown et al., 2015). The active continuous permafrost layer averages 10 cm in thickness by August (Brown and Johnson, 2015). If a citation begins a sentence it is written such that only the year is in brackets: Landry (2012) reported that the bay was free of sea ice on average by June 2nd. You should only cite the year of publication (do not cite a page number). The only time you cite a page number is for quotations; however in a research-based essay such as this one you should not use quotations. Ensure you paraphrase information rather than simply rewriting it. Some descriptive words used within a research field are unusual and therefore it may be difficult to describe something without using those exact words, but if you do not understand the meaning of a word you should look up its definition. Always try to describe information in your own words. It is not necessary to cite every paraphrased sentence (you can choose to cite once at the end of a paraphrased paragraph instead). However, any sentence that contains a date, number, or statistic must be cited at the end of that specific sentence. Bibliography: At the end of the essay, you need to include a list of references in APA format. List only those sources you used in the essay (not everything you read). Include in this list the sources of all figures and tables used (citations for these should be included in their captions). The bibliography should be organized alphabetically by author. The first line of each reference (the author line) should meet with the left margin. All other lines in that reference should be indented. This allows the reader to have a quick scan for sources by author. References should be written in lines that are single spaced. Then, include a blank line between each reference.