15Mar 2022 byAuditory.htmlAuditoryThe receptors for hearing are deep inside the ear and are called hair cells. The auditory waves go through several steps and are transmitted by several different structures before they reach the hair cells.Sound waves are funneled through the auditory canal (the outer opening in the ear) to the tympanic membrane, which is also known as the eardrum. When the sound waves enter the auditory canal, they cause the tympanic membrane to vibrate, and it is the tympanic membrane’s vibrations that cause the tiniest bones in the body to move. These bones are in the middle ear and are collectively called the ossicles. The individual names of the ossicles are the hammer, the anvil, and the stirrup. When the stirrup starts to vibrate, it makes a small membrane move. This membrane is stretched across the oval window, and the movement of this membrane transfers the auditory impulses to an inner ear structure called the cochlea.The sound wave energy is transmitted throughout the fluid-filled cochlea, causing a membrane called the basilar membrane to vibrate. When the hair cells are pressed up against the tectorial membrane, the auditory receptors are activated and transduction occurs. The hair cells are part of the auditory receptor, and there are between fifteen thousand and twenty thousand auditory receptors in the human ear. Transduction is the process of an auditory receptor converting a physical stimulus into an electrical impulse. The sound wave that is conveyed through the ear by a series of movements ends up displacing the cilia on top of the hair cells. When the hair cells are displaced, ion channels are opened and this results in a burst of electrical signals.
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