6 PEER RESPONSES DUE IN 24 HOURS

DUE IN 24 HOURS

  
FILMS
Respond to at least two of your classmates.
AMANDA’S POST:
For this week’s film, I chose to watch Jaws (1975). Jaws was directed by Steven Spielberg and makes a great use of camera angles, sound, and color. The three scenes that I will describe maintain aspects of all camera angles, sound, and color. 
In the introduction scene, there are two characters, a male and female, who are running towards the water from a party they were previously at, it is here that the camera tracks the woman as she runs towards the water. The woman is removing her clothes while the man struggles to take his clothes off because he is too intoxicated. There is a significant focus on the sky and how gray it is along with the scene maintaining a blue hue. The cool colors give a calm feel and then there is a focus on the sunset that is viewed below the gray cover of clouds. The sunset is bright with orange and reds. It was important that the focus for the time of say was dusk, not quite daytime; not yet night. As the woman is swimming, the camera shifts to underwater giving a point of view shot from the shark. The shark attacks the woman and the stunt begins with the woman being violently thrashed around as though the shark is attacking her and making her 
fly through the water. The next scene the water is calm as though nothing ever happened. 
The second scene is during the daytime at the beach. There are families and children around the beach swimming and playing in the water. The focus is on a little boy who has a bright yellow raft that he is swimming on. The raft keeps his torso on the main part of the raft but his arms and legs are off of the raft as he swims around. The nondiegetic sound begins as the “Jaws Theme” begins to play. This music immediately begins to create suspense because you know the shark is near, but you do not know where yet. Again the camera angle is from the shark underwater, however, this time, the shark’s point of view is through the attack. The camera cuts to a wide screen view where there is panic amongst the people and the child is brutally attacked. The color is vibrant as the blue water and white splashes are significantly contrasted with the bright red blood that comes from the body. The next cut is of the yellow float being washed up onto the shore with the bright blood stained water washing over it.  This is also the first scene where the audience is able to see the shark and how large it is. 
The final scene that caught my attention is when Hooper, played by Richard Dreyfuss, goes into the shark cage to try to inject a lethal concoction into the shark. The scene causes the audience to feel immediate anxiety as he voluntarily goes into the water with this massive shark that has almost sunk their boat multiple times. The scene is dark and is again filled with cool colors as there is a dark blue tint. There is a low angle for the camera as the cage is lowered into the water. The only sound is the diegetic sound of the water and breathing through the tank. There is then a point of view show for Hooper as we can make out a hazy vision of the shark. As the image of the shark is seen, the “Jaws Theme” is played quietly and becomes louder the closer and clearer the shark comes into view. As the camera pans around Hooper in the cage, it tracks the shark to the water where it disappears. The “Jaws Theme”music stops and the sound returns to the diegetic sounds of the spear tapping on the metal cage and the stopper being taken off the tip of the spear. The silence is deafening and it quickly ends with a loud crash as the shark attacks the cage. Hooper is thrown around the cage and the shark “robot” is seen in its full gigantic size. The music is string instruments as the attack happens and it becomes more intense as Hooper drops his spear and is fearful of the shark. Close ups are shown with Hooper’s face to accentuate the fear. He is able to escape as the shark thrashes the cage. 
BOYD’S POST:
This week’s movie is “The Way of the Dragon” (1972). the Bruce Lee, lead actress, icon of the era, as well as the producer of the film is participating in a highly publicized feud with Chuck Norris There are, of course, plenty of action and adventure movies. a cartel to expand their operations through an Italian crime ring boss in order to gain control of his cousin’s bakery, and then helps his cousin buy the property for the family restaurant, the opposition sets out to ruin, where they’ve reached their endgame. Things start out funny for Lee, who is recently arrived from China and new to the city; he finds he has quite a few of misconceptions about the Romans’ ideas and traditions.

in the movie, there is an improvement in the struggle and confrontation as the gang members and restaurant staff demand that Lee slow down with his song and dance marathon

It uses a number of different special effects, many of which are used in action sequences, which often include their own camera angles and stunts.

It was difficult to choose just three effects from the film to be included since they both stood out for me.

In the confusion, the staff all went to watch Lee do some kung fu tricks for fun, except for one, who told him to expand his practice area. an effective fall from the man who is standing with one is creating an extraordinary set of this whole scene from nothing.

is probably pissed because of the way Lee humiliates the other employees to revenge against Lee, or might be looking for a chance to retaliate because of the things that Lee did to harm and intimidate the other employees. The whole restaurant got beaten, unfortunately, the gang just met at his place with a few there because of the visit of his companion. As the boat prepares to leave, one of the tugboats (diluting the shirt’s chemical compound) starts pouring. Lee, during final questioning, was assisted by his peers, and they escorted him out to the streets by forcing him to walk with them. And when he was given the opportunity to retaliate, after he was assaulted, all eight gang members began to target him. had became the most popular user of the term ever, the king had seen his famous kingly fu for the first time in battle, but was it a new, or was it something more traditional in that it’s application?

Bruce Lee and Chuck Norris’ battle sequence in the movie is, or maybe the scene that still stands out, as one of time and one of the most notable action set pieces. To call this the scene memorable, several people felt that it was reminiscent of the historical, and stirring battles of past films would be accurate. Booth recreates a battle scene that featured the best American martial artist that the Mafia bosses have ever employed to engage in battle with Lee. They fought the two knights in the arena outside the castle called the Battlefield of Rome.

An significant feature that supports the story is how the sound effects shape the experience in the movie are made.

The first opening of the restaurant door has enabled the guests to see Lee, who is currently keeping an eye on the group, as well as to examine its private details, as the guests enter.

As Bruce Lee decided to engage himself in the altercation, he first stepped onto the battlefield, managing to deal with the two troublesome waiters (aka the “Tugs”) as well as everyone else. And, The physical manner in which Bruce Lee hurt his opponents was often an expression of self- as well. the more time he spends at the chess club, the more respected he becomes

If Lee is going after the shooter who fired on the concertgoers made the chase even pursuit a tense drama and more exciting, so why would it render Lee’s other drama a melodrama?

There are three places where the color of the robe or black vest in The Way of the Dragon plays a major roles in this movie:

Chef shouted “Heads up, the tourists are here again; you’ve got a red top and black trousers on”. The floor is red and white, and so the walls of the restaurant are changing to both red and white.

When the two young women unlock their gates, a hit guy is seen in their flat, and then he does more scowling than he originally had; in the dark, his grimace is more pronounced. the dark-side of the shadows (side of the office), and when approaching him from behind, the voice bogeyman (my assassin) said “my boss needs to see you.

the final battle between Lee and Norris was the most intense, most difficult of the entire film Instead of revealing the naked, thin bodies, this scene highlights their sculpted physique, and physical attributes, the color enhances the beautiful side of their appearance in the next one with Tight-fitting appearance When human fighting continues, the color does a wonderful job of portraying how much blood is on the floor.
RESPOND TO 2 PEERS
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS
SHEMAIAH’S POST:
The Quasi- Experimental design offers researchers the opportunity to manipulate the research study in a manner that will allow the researcher to zero in on specific components of the research study. More specifically, the Quasi-Experimental design provides controllability and internal validity (Malec & Newman, 2013, p. 235). One example of a Quasi-Experimental design would be collecting data within a classroom. For instance, in my classroom I am required to utilize a specific reading program weekly. In addition to this, I am required to use the same reading program to administer a reading diagnostic assessment at three separate intervals of the school year. I could evaluate student progress through a time series design. The time series design correlates with this research study, because it would allow me to make observations through weekly lessons that could be used to explain the increase or decrease in each student’s diagnostic score. The independent variables for this research study would be using anchor charts in the classroom, incorporating team builders and class building strategies, small group instruction activities, growth mindset chants, and verbal and nonverbal encouragement. The dependent variables are to measure the increase or decrease in the diagnostic score.
Moreover, to make this study a true experiment one would need to create a control group that does not receive any independent variables and one experimental group that receives one independent variable. In addition to this, each group would need to complete reading lessons and the reading diagnostic in similar environments, on the same day, using an identical device, at the same time of the day to ensure that the experiment is focused and specifically targeted on measuring the variables in the study. Using a true experimental design offers the researcher the ability to focus specifically on one independent variable which allows the researcher to gain a greater sense of control (Malec & Newman, 2013, p. 238). Finally, one may choose to use a Quasi- experimental design if the individual is interested in trends versus specifics.
References
Malec, T., & Newman, M. (2013). Research methods building a knowledge base. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
KENYATTA’S POST:
A quasi experiment generally takes place in a field setting where the independent variable is already in place, opposed to a true experiment where participants are randomly assigned (Malec, 2013). The quasi-experimental design usually offers more control, whereas the true experimental design gives the researcher more control and the independent variable can be manipulated. One example of a quasi-experiment could be determining a cause and effect relationship with speeding and car accidents. In this type of study, the independent variable would be the speed limit that is posted and can not be manipulated by the researcher, and the dependent variable would be car accidents related to weather conditions or car accidents/drivers. Quasi experiments usually describe a real event in an already existing group (Malec, 2013).
A true experiment randomly assigns participants who are blind to the assignment, in this case the independent variable can be controlled. One example of this could be researching a specific drug and how it can affect depression in individuals. The researcher could manipulate the independent variable, in this case the dosage of the medication, and determine how that dosage (whether high or low) will affect the patient (dependent variable). The researcher could randomly select patients who suffer with a mild form of depression and then create control groups in order to determine results. One group could receive the actual medication and the other could receive a very low dose (controlled).
In a 2019 study, researchers used the quasi experimental design in order to determine a cause and effect relationship between hypertension and diabetes. According to the article, about 463 million adults are living with diabetes of some type (Olmen, 2020). This study includes a formative, intervention, and evaluation phase in order to develop a relationship between people who suffer with hypertension and diabetes simultaneously. This design required an evaluation period. This could not have been designed as a true experiment based on the fact that you cannot manipulate the independent variable in this case.
To summarize, a true experiment can be used to establish a cause and effect relationship, whereas a quasi experiment can be used to make comparisons testing a variable with no randomized participants (Malec, 2013).  The advantages of using a true experiment opposed to a quasi experiment is that in a true experimental design, the researcher could manipulate the independent variable. This could offer more flexibility for your research process and make it easier in terms of collecting data. This type of experiment is also more controlled by the researcher.
References
Malec, T., & Newman, M. (2013). Research methods building a knowledge base. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Olmen, J. (2020). Scale up integrated care for diabetes and hypertension in Cambodia, Slovenia, and Belgium: a study designed for quasi-experimental multiple case study. Global Health Action. 13 (1).
EXPERIMENTAL VALIDITY
SUBSTANTIVELY RESPOND TO AT LEAST 2 PEERS.
PATRICIA’S POST:
My topic of interest for the research study is Brain Injury, it is a topic most people don’t talk about unless they actually have one.  Through this topic, we can discuss the many reasons why people have brain injuries.  A brain injury can be any injury to the brain which affects someone emotionally, physically, and even affects their behavior.  A brain injury can happen at birth but most likely will happen later due to trauma or some kind of illness.
Through this research of data,  Some things that will affect both the external and internal validity of data such as my internal validity threats are environmental variables, individual differences, history and maturation, and also testing effects. “Campbell’s (1957) article focuses on seven classes of extraneous variables that can undermine the internal validity of an experiment if they are not controlled by the experimental design of a study. Thus, these classes of extraneous variables are called “threats to internal validity.” Campbell named them: history, maturation, testing, instrument decay, statistical regression, selection, and mortality.”( Flannelly,2018)
If this was a study, the participants that were selected how many, sex, age and depending on if their scans were high or low, a regression could pose a threat to the internal validity. However, this problem could be solved by adding more participants and having more to look at.
External validity for treatment was important because the research provided on an inpatient would be the basis, whereas the clinical cases being treated in outpatient rehabilitation.  It would be unreasonable to expect a perfect external validity for every group considered. Reasons would include simple statistical variability and differences in patients.
To me, I think that internal validity is more important for brain injury.
One of the things that’s most difficult to grasp about internal validity is that it is only relevant to the specific study in question. Validity is one of the main concerns with research because any research can be affected by different kinds of factors.   
Is internal and external validity important to every question and can you have one without the other?
References
Flannelly, K. J., Flannelly, L. T., & Jankowski, K. R. B. (2018). Threats to the Internal Validity of  Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research in Healthcare. Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 24(3), 107–130. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1080/08854726.2017.1421019
DAWN’S POST:
Experimental Validity
The proposed study of interest to me would be to eliminate bullying in early childhood development by introducing social and moral development. The proposed study would include two groups of children from different areas and in one group foster morals of sympathy and caring for others to prevent bullying later in life. Experimental validity can be described as whether the results allude to what we think (Malec & Newman, 2013). The two types of validity that are relevant to experimental designs include internal validity and external validity. When the independent variables play apart in the outcome of the testing, this is considered the internal validity. And when the outcome can be generalized in various groups, the validity is considered external. While can be control or uncontrolled, by minimizing the influence of extraneous variables, you can avoid threats to the internal validity of an experiment (Malec et al., 2013). The variables can be inadvertently altered which may causes changes to the mood of the experiment by the researcher. This considered a confounding variable. Malec et al., (2013) also wrote, “Internal validity can also be threatened when groups are different before the manipulation, which is known as selection bias” (ch. 5.3). The best to avoid potential threats would be to use random samples for the experiment. You can also use what is known as the placebo effect, with this the participant may give positive or negative response that could reduce the threats in the validity of the study. An experimental design is relied upon to have both validity types however, internal validity is the main requirement in order to have effective inferences. To achieve a confident outcome, there must be a less likely confounding variable and the higher the internal validity, the more sound chances of reducing potential threats. In an external validity process, when evaluating how well the results generalize to circumstances past the particular conditions will lay out a conducive study.
Reference
Malec, T. & Newman, M. (2013). Research methods: Building a knowledge base. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.